S9 Liver Extract and Metabolic Activation
S. typhimurium and E. coli, used in Ames test, are prokaryotes and therefore do not exactly reflect the conditions in humans. In mammalian organisms chemical molecules are often metabolized in the liver. This can lead to the generation of mutagenic metabolites.
S9 is a liver extract (e.g. rat, hamster) that contains active liver enzymes (P450 activity) simulating the hepatic metabolism in in vitro assays.
The P450 activity in S9 can be increased through induction with pure chemicals like Aroclor1254ˆ or Phenobarbital. Metabolic activation systems based on chemically induced S9 have been widely applied in in vitro studies; e.g. the Salmonella mutagenicity test and the micronucleus test.
S9 is the supernatant of homogenized liver that has been centrifuged at 9000g for 10min. For gaining the liver mircrosomes the homogenized liver is centrifuged at 100000g for 1h.
For use in Ames test, the S9 standard mixture is: 4-10% S9 liver extract, 4mM NADP, 5mM Glucose-6-phosphat, 10mM Na/K Phosphate buffer (pH7.4), 8mM Mg-Aspartat, 33mM KCl
A detailed description of all aspects of screening and regulatory genetox tests can be find in: Genetic Toxicology Testing – A Laboratory Manual, edited by Ray Proudlock, Academic Press 2016
Lyophilized S9 Rat Liver Extract
Lyophilized S9 is easy to handle and especially useful when an ultralow freezer is not available. It is ready to use after reconstitution with the label volume of cold, sterile, purified water.
|11-05L.1||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, lyoph.||-20°C||1.1 ml/vial|
|11-05L.2||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, lyoph.||-20°C||2.1 ml/vial|
|11-05L.5||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, lyoph.||-20°C||5 ml/vial|
Frozen S9 Rat/Hamster Liver Extract
|11-102.2||S9 SD rat liver uninduced in KCl, frozen||-80°C||2 ml/vial|
|11-102.5||S9 SD rat liver uninduced in KCl, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
|11-105.1||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, frozen||-80°C||1 ml/vial|
|11-105.2||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, frozen||-80°C||2 ml/vial|
|11-105.5||S9 SD rat liver PB/BNF in KCl, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
|11-115.5||S9 SD rat liver Ethanol in KCl, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
|15-03S.5ˆ||S9 Golden Syrian Hamster liver Aroclorˆ in KCl for modified Ames, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
|15-104.5||S9 Golden Syrian Hamster liver uninduced in KCl, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
|15-205.5||S9 Golden Syrian Hamster liver PB/BNF in KCl, frozen||-80°C||5 ml/vial|
Please note: Please ask for availability of S9 Mouse! Ready-to-use SD Rat S9 Mix MUTAZYME™ is available as well.
ˆ Because of impending Aroclor shortage, supply of Aroclor induced S9 products depends on availability!